Addison’s Disease PPT Video

Addison’s Disease PPT Video


Hello Professor Baldwin and Medical Terminology classmates. My name is Michelle Eshaghian and my presentation
is on Addison’s disease. Addison’s disease is a rare endocrine disorder
that affects about 1 per 10,000 people. It is characterized by the hyposecretion of
adrenocorticoid hormones due to the destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex, which
is part of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands lie superior to the kidneys. I have provided a cross section of one adrenal
gland. The adrenal cortex surrounds the adrenal medulla
and comprises approximately 80% of the volume of one adrenal gland. The adrenal cortex is very important because
it provides adrenocorticoid hormones that are vital to our wellbeing. There are two classes of adrenocorticoid hormones:
glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid. It plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates,
proteins, and fat; glycogen formation, immunity, stress responses, and emotional responses. Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid. It plays a role in extracellular fluid volume,
electrolyte balance, water balance, sodium absorption, and potassium excretion. There are several possible causes of adrenal
cortex destruction or dysfunction. The first is tuberculosis, an infectious bacterial
disease that prominently attacks the lungs, but often damages the kidneys, brain, and
spine as a result. Autoimmune diseases can also cause adrenal
cortex destruction. The immune system views the tissue as a foreign
body and seeks to attack and destroy it. When cancer spreads to the adrenal glands,
it can cause destruction of the cortex as a result. Hemorrhaging can also cause destruction of
the tissue because of the overwhelming flow of blood to the area. When the cortex is damaged, Addison’s disease
is the result. The symptoms for Addison’s disease are very
diverse and widespread. Symptoms usually develop slowly over several
months. However, in some cases such as an Addisonian
crisis, signs and symptoms may appear suddenly. Symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation,
decreased appetite, hypotension, gastrointestinal disturbances, hypoglycemia, muscle and joint
pain, irritability, body hair changes, sexual dysfunction, hyperkalemia, and hypernatremia. This cartoon shows the widespread symptoms
of Addison’s disease in an adult female. This is how hyperpigmentation may present
in the body. In the upper left image, the individual’s
gums are much darker than normal. The bottom right image shows the difference
in hand color before and after Addison’s disease. As you can see, the hand has a much more bronze
pigmentation after disease onset. There are several ways to diagnose Addison’s
disease. A blood test can be used to measure sodium,
potassium, and cortisol levels. In an ACTH stimulation test, synthetic ACTH
is injected into the bloodstream to measure if cortisol output is limited or nonexistent. Some physicians may have their patients undergo
imaging tests, such as CT scans, to determine if there are any abnormalities of the adrenal
glands. In the chronic management of Addison’s disease,
patients may be prescribed oral corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone, or corticosteroid
injections. Patients are also advised to increase their
sodium intake to maintain electrolyte balance. As I mentioned earlier, Addison’s disease
can present as an Addisonian crisis if it goes unnoticed or untreated. Further disregard of the disease can result
in coma or death. It is important that individuals that present
with the signs of the disease get immediate help. Thank you! I hope that I have increased your awareness
and knowledge of Addison’s disease.

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