Working Families Summit: “A 21st Century Economy that Works for Business and Workers”

Working Families Summit: “A 21st Century Economy that Works for Business and Workers”


Female Speaker: Welcome back. The secretary of the United
States Department of Labor, Thomas E. Perez. (applause) Secretary Perez:
Hey, good afternoon. You all having fun? Audience Members: Yes. Secretary Perez: Great morning. Thank you to our Vice
President, Dr. Biden. I think there’s someone
else coming this afternoon. A few more people. (applause) Secretary Perez: And
it’s an honor to be here. You know, today, for me,
is my father’s birthday, and were he alive, he
would be 92 years old. And Sunday of this
week, the 29th, will be the 40th
anniversary of his passing. I was 12 years old at the
time, the youngest of five, and as time passes, I tend
to remember a little bit less and less. But the thing I remember the
most is that he was always at my baseball games. And so, as I grew up and
got these various jobs, including my current job, it was
always remarkably important for me to make sure that I was at my
kids’ baseball games or other sporting events, and to
make sure that I was there to coach and be there for them. And in fact, being at
people’s graduations was kind of important. A couple of weeks ago, my
daughter graduated high school, and it was right in the
middle of a cabinet meeting, and my boss said I could go. (laughter) Secretary Perez: It was a
close call, but you know what? Nobody ever sat
on their deathbed, lamenting that they didn’t
get to enough meetings in the office. That was always something
that I thought about. And the fact that I was able
to coach my kids for the last 10 years, and still coach
my kids, and make that time is something that I
have the ability to do. And as so many other
speakers have shown today, it’s something that all
too many people don’t have the ability to do. And this next session is
going to be a session about the business case for why
flexible leave policies are not only the right thing to
do, they are the smart thing to do, because there are so
many employers in this room, and across this country,
who already get this. They tell me time and time
again that their most precious resource is their human capital. They tell me that if they’re
going to compete for human capital, they better make sure
that they are providing all of the benefits that meet the
concerns of working families. And flexible leave policies
are one of those benefits. And so when I speak to people,
like the CEO of Costco, when I speak to
people like, you know, the head of the — the president
of the Ace Hardware store a mile and a half from
here, large businesses, small business
alike, who get it. They understand that flexible
leave policies are consistent with their bottom line, and you
should never make choices — it’s a false choice, in fact,
to choose between your bottom line and your worker. You can do both. You can take care of your
workers and deliver a fair return on investment to your
shareholders and others. And as we debate this and have
this conversation — and you’re going to hear shortly from
a number of people from the business community — I would
ask you to think about the following, which is to
put this conversation in a global perspective. And ask the question, you know,
I always like to ask this question, you know — where
were you, mama, and where were you, daddy? You know, you look at the
biggest movements of our lives. You know, “Where were
you in the early 30’s?” Lloyd Blankfein said to
me this morning, you know. It’s a good frame. Where were you when Congress was
debating laws on child labor, when Congress was debating
the Fair Labor Standards Act? Where were you, mama? Where were you, daddy, when
Congress in the early 60s was debating Medicare, and other
things that are now so rooted in the American fabric? You know, where were
you, mama, and dad, when Congress was debating
the Affordable Care Act? I’m proud to say that we
were on the right side of history on that one. (applause) Secretary Perez: Where were
you when Congress passed the Family Medical
Leave Act, a remarkable piece of family-friendly legislation? And as we have this
conversation about FMLA 2.0, let’s ask that same question,
because when we put ourselves in the context of the rest
of the world, the current answer is, we’re pretty lousy. We haven’t done it. We have remarkable employers
here today who have done it, but you know, the
fact of the matter is, Sweden spends more on childcare
and early education than nearly every other nation in the world. And it has one of the highest
levels of GDP per capita in the world. And you know, I need one
hand, and maybe not much more than my thumbs, to
count the number of nations who do not have some
form of paid leave. And that’s why
we’re here to day. And that is why it’s important
to make the business case for this, because other countries,
and businesses in other countries have concluded
that you can do this. And we have seen it in states
across this country; California, Connecticut have demonstrated —
those incubators of innovation — that you can do the good
thing, the right thing, and not undermine
someone’s bottom line. So that is why we’re here today. And that is why our
next panels will focus on the business case,
because it is so important for us to hear, and really
to lift up the remarkable businesses, small, mid-size,
and large alike, who have done the right thing. They have made that choice
to invest in their workers, to give them those
flexible leave policies, so they can indeed not have
to make that horrible choice, between the job they need
and the family they love. To make sure that we understand
the most important family value is indeed time with our family. Businesses across this country
are doing the right thing and public policy needs
to catch up with them. So we look forward to hearing
and watching this video, and then we look forward to
hearing from business leaders, and we look forward
to hearing from the President of
the United States. Thank you for your leadership. (applause) Secretary Perez: ¡Sí
se puede, adelante! And so much more that
we can do and will do, as we continue to
build this movement. It’s a movement for
fairness, inclusion, and it is a movement that is
totally consistent with our values and our
economic self-interest. Thank you so much. (applause) Narrator: The homemaker. The breadwinner. Family dinners. What does this
look like in 2014? The world has changed, but today
many of our nation’s families are still working under
yesterday’s policies — equal pay, flex time, paid leave,
childcare, and eldercare, the role of women
in the workplace, how technology impacts business. Male Speaker: The woman
who works at a career has chosen to ignore the
culture trait that considers the woman’s place
as in the home. Male Speaker: Yes, women
workers do present problems. It’s tough, I know, but there
are thousands of others just like you all over the country,
facing the same problems.” Stephanie Linnartz: Families
look different these days. Susan Wojicicki: We have a
different kind of workforce, we have a diverse workforce. Stephanie Linnartz: It’s not,
you know, the 1950’s anymore. Narrator: In almost three out
of five families with children, both parents work, with women
bringing home 44 percent of the family income. Male Speaker: When married
women with small children have to take jobs, everything
possible will be done to provide day care for the children. Narrator: That was from a 1943
recruitment video during World War II, but affordable
childcare continues to be a challenge
across America. Demetria Elmore: Do I have to
make that decision of being a good parent or being a
career-oriented person? Susan Wojcicki: The
family-friendly policies that we have are essential
to our business. Arne Sorenson: Policies
which are focused on taking care of our associates. Susan Wojcicki: We have a
flexible work environment. Arne Sorenson:
Childcare on site. Susan Wojcicki: We
have paternity leave. We have maternity leave. Arne Sorenson: The ability
to work from home, or on the road, or remotely. Susan Wojcicki: We have a whole
host of other benefits that are really good for families. Joe Echevarria: It’s really
more about you having some predictability in your schedule,
so that you can then decide, how do you fit in the
rest of your life? Male Speaker: It’s about
empowering our people to make sure that they can get a really
good balance between work and their personal lives. Demetria Elmore: One of the
things I’ve been able to take advantage of is our on-site,
at-headquarters daycare Natalie Cooper: I cannot be as
successful at work as I want to be if I don’t
feel comfortable that I’m adding the value into
my family life that I need to, and having that
right balance. Narrator: Today, women make up
nearly half of the workforce, and more than 2 million fathers
are the primary caregivers for their children. Susan Wojcicki: Men also
feel these pressures. This isn’t just a woman’s issue. Natalie Cooper: We see more men
taking advantage of different opportunities to create
new work/life fit. Demetria Elmore: It’s not,
you do all the child stuff, and I’ll just show up
and bring home the bacon. We both bring home the bacon,
so at the end of the day, we want to eat. Right? You know, so we’re making
that BLT together [laughs]. Male Speaker: The government’s
policy is that women should get the same policy that men
get for similar work. Employers find that women can
do many jobs as well as men, some jobs better. Narrator: Sixty-one years
later, a woman still earns only 77 cents for every
dollar earned by a man. And women of color
earn even less. Susan Wojcicki: It’s important
to keep pushing and keep encouraging women. Stephanie Linnartz: Well over a
third of our top senior managers are women now, and that’s
growing exponentially. Susan Wojcicki: We have women
at all levels of the company. They play really
important roles. Stephanie Linnartz: I think
there’s a real correlation between a commitment to
diversity and inclusion in a company and the financial
success of a company. Male Speaker: Who are the
people who are most likely to succeed? What’s the secret
of their success? Susan Wojcicki: We need to offer
policies that work for working families, otherwise we’re
going to fall behind. Joe Echevarria: This isn’t
just the right thing to do. This isn’t something you
do just for business. This is what you do to exist. Susan Wojcicki: There are other
workplaces that don’t focus on family-friendly policies. In the end, that’s going to
wind up hurting a lot of those businesses, because it won’t
attract a lot of talent. Narrator: America’s global
competitiveness in the coming years will require workplaces
that are fair, effective, and productive, for both
employees and employers, because good policy
is good business. Joe Echevarria: We wouldn’t
be in business without our people and these policies,
these opportunities. There’d be no business, because
people wouldn’t want to be here. They wouldn’t want to stay here. Susan Wojcicki: People
are everything at the end of the day, in our business,
and really, in any business. Arne Sorenson: Investing in
associates is undoubtedly good for our business. It is good for our bottom line,
because of reduced turnover. Natalie Cooper: Great
policies around work/life fit are great for any business. It absolutely makes a
different in attracting, retaining the best
talent, and as important, having employees that love the
organization that they work for, and will provide their absolute
ideas, best creativity, best self to that organization. Susan Wojcicki: We can’t
afford not to do this. We have to be able to compete. We have to be able to offer
family-friendly policies. Demetria Elmore: Good policies. Stephanie Linnartz:
Good policies. Susan Wojcicki: Good policy — Demetria Elmore: —
is good business. Stephanie Linnartz:
— is good business. Joe Echevarria: It’s just
the only way to do business. It’s not about good or bad
to me; it’s the only way. Male Speaker: A policy through
which you can build a foundation of security for yourself
and your family. (music playing) (applause) Female speaker:
Ladies and gentleman, from the Council of Economic
Advisers, Betsey Stevenson. (applause) Betsey Stevenson: Wasn’t
that a great video? How exciting is it to be here
on the 42nd anniversary of the passage of Title IX? (applause) Betsey Stevenson: With a
godmother of Title IX, Dr. Sandler, in the audience,
we’re here to talk about the next generation of policy. I don’t need to tell you
that families have changed. Women work more. They earn more. They lead more. In fact, median family income
is $13,000 higher today, and our GDP is $2
trillion greater, because of the advances women
have made in work since 1970. And men nurture more. They change more diapers. They pack more lunches. They’re more likely to
be responsible for a kid or an elder parent’s wellbeing. Today one in five fathers
are the primary caregiver of preschool-aged children
when the mother is employed. (applause) Betsey Stevenson: And as
you just saw in the video, six in 10 households with kids
today have all parents working. There’s perhaps no better moment
that captures the changes in our lives than breakfast. The 1950’s and 1960’s breakfast
table was a time of hot meals and calm togetherness. Mom’s job was to get
everyone out the door, well-nourished and
ready to start the day. That’s not what breakfast
looks like at my house. (laughter) Betsey Stevenson: And I bet
it doesn’t look like that at yours either. Today’s breakfast is likely to
be a juggling act as everyone tries to get out the door
without forgetting something. The scene is a chaotic scramble
for lunches, homework, last minute double-checks on
who’s picking up which kid from where so you don’t
leave anybody anywhere. (laughter) Betsey Stevenson: The problem
is that our family lives have changed, but our workplaces
and the structure of our jobs haven’t kept up with the times. Here’s the reality. Workers today struggle to
balance work and family, and as a result, are choosing
to work in different jobs, even different careers, and
sometimes not to work at all, because making it all fit
together is just too hard without the lack of support
from work/family policies. And the cost of losing women
from work is growing every single day. Women today have more
skills than ever before. They exceed men in education
and are catching up with men on work experience. We cannot afford to lose them. Data from a recent Harris
poll shows that we want our employers to do more. Nearly nine in 10 of us
believe employers should offer flexibility, and more than half
of workers feel they could do their job better if they
were given flexibility. Even so, nearly half of parents
say they’ve passed up a job, because it was going to be just
too hard on their families. Too often, the things that make
our mornings a little easier, like flexible hours, and ability
to telework, paid leave, aren’t available to us. The United States is one out of
two of the 185 countries that doesn’t offer guaranteed
paid maternity leave. Only 11 percent of workers
get paid family leave. There’s a few more who are able
to cobble together other forms of leave, so they’re able to
take paid family leave when they need it, but let’s compare
that to what Americans want. More than 80 percent of men and
90 percent of women believe women should get
paid maternity leave. (applause) Betsey Stevenson: And a third
of Americans believe men and women should take equal
amounts of paid leave for the birth of a child. (applause) Betsey Stevenson: The
reality is, kids get sick. And with most parents working,
what do you do when school calls and says that your kid
has 102 degree fever? It shouldn’t be that hard to
make sure we can care for our children when they’re sick, and
still be productive members of the workforce. Well, the demand for
family-friendly workplaces has long been a women’s issue,
and an important factor in the gender wage gap. Dads are joining moms in
prioritizing jobs that allow more flexibility,
require less travel, or include paid paternity leave. We know that increasing paid
leave and workplace flexibility benefits workers by improving
their job satisfaction, and because they’re
important to workers, these policies help businesses
attract and retain talent. In fact, company stock prices
tend to rise when companies announce they’re adopting new
work/family-friendly policies. And it’s not just the
businesses that benefit. We know policies, like
childcare and paid leave, are essential to our
future economic growth, as there are important
drivers of female labor force participation and important
drivers of the skills for the next generation. In fact, research shows that
when women get paid maternity leave, their children earn
higher wages later in life. It’s an investment. So let’s think
back to breakfast. Most of us think of this as “my
personal life, my own problem, my inability, my
inflexible schedule, my inability to tele-work, my
inability to find convenient, high-quality daycare.” But it’s not your problem. This scene is playing
out all over America. Our own struggle to juggle work
and family has increasingly become our nation’s
juggling act. By adopting the workplace
polices that are proven to help our businesses and our
economy, we can make millions of families’ weekday
mornings a bit simpler. And in the process we can make
our economy more efficient, and ensure that all of our
talented men and women are able to participate in our economy
to the fullest extent possible. By succeeding at work and at
home we will be — ensure that people are able to both
have peace at home and a stronger economy. So we’re going to explore this
business and economic case more, and I want to welcome to
the stage our moderators, Claire Shipman and Katty Kay,
and our esteemed panelists to the stage to continue the
conversation of the business case for family
friendly policies. (applause) Claire Shipman: Well, thank
you very much, Betsey. This issue could not be
more important, I think, for all of us personally, and
also for our economy as a whole. I had a little bit of a taste
of the statistics this morning, because my husband, who was
working for the President until Friday, and is now home, is
home dealing with camp and children today — (laughter) Claire Shipman:
— while I’m here, and he seemed very happy
to make that switch. But we’re also thrilled to be
part of this illustrious panel, because we are going to get a
great point of view from a lot of different places
today, and we’ll start — we’re not going to introduce
you exactly in order, so maybe wave when
I give your names. Liz Shuler. She’s currently the
secretary treasurer — (applause) Claire Shipman: A lot of you
know her — for the AFL-CIO, and I want to — you’ll
have to applaud again, because I was going to
say she’s the first woman to ever have this position. It’s one of the top three
leadership positions (applause) Claire Shipman: And she has
worked on issues like this for years, and is now especially
focused on issues that affect younger workers and women. So thank you so
much for being here. Nick Bloom, a
professor of economics at Stanford University. Welcome. You’re also co-director of
the Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program at the National Bureau
of Economic Research. Welcome, Nick. (applause) Claire Shipman: And
on the personal side, which you’ll soon discover, he
is English and lives in Stanford with his Scottish wife, and so
we’ll have a number of British accents here today, some
diversity of accent, which is nice. And Kim Jordan. Thank you so much
for being with us. She’s the co-founder and CEO
of New Belgium Brewing, which is — (applause) Claire Shipman: — really
one of the most successful, small to medium — as
we discussed earlier — corporations in the
United States today, and in large part thanks to her,
really her passion for employing environmental standards,
the issues about community, and some really innovative
employee — I guess, flexibility, employee-positive
techniques throughout the whole company that
we’re going to hear about. And we can’t wait to hear more. Katty Kay: There are no
free samples, though, in case you were wondering — (laughter) Katty Kay: — from Kim. She made that very
clear earlier. Sheila Marcelo is with us, too. She’s the founder and
the CEO of Care.com, which is a great
organization that is fixing people up, working families
up with something that, of course, is very important to all of us, which is people to care and help look after our children, or even our elderly parents when we’re not around
in the house to do it. (applause) Katty Kay: Care.com,
founded in 2006, it now has 10 million members in
16 different countries around the world, and it was founded
really from her own personal experience as a young
mother of two sons. She’ll tell us a little bit
more about that in a minute. Bob Moritz is with us as well. He’s the chairman
and senior partner of Price Waterhouse Coopers. You were just
reelected last year, so congratulations on that. He’s been with the
company since 1985. He spent a stint in
Tokyo, so he can give us an international perspective
on this issue, as well. Having lived in Tokyo myself,
I know how hard these issues can be there. On a personal side, Bob has two
children, but his real love, as well, is motorbikes
and playing the drums, which he’s also
promised he’s not going to do for us this morning. Bob, I want to start with you. We heard Betsey there make
out the business case for more flexibility. You’ve done a great job at Price
Waterhouse Coopers on this. What have you found in your
data while you were doing this? Bob Moritz: Well, two
things come to mind. People in general believe this
is an important topic either A, because they think it’s
the right thing to do; B, because they have a personal
perspective on it; and C, the business case. So let’s touch on the
business case very briefly. If you’re engaging
your workforce, and that doesn’t matter, if it’s
next gen Millennials versus Baby Boomers, male, female — does
not matter — if you’re engaging them you’re going to get 75
percent more productivity. What does that mean? That doesn’t mean more hours. That means better performance. And now what the
question is all about is, what’s engagement, right? Do I understand the strategy? Do I feel like I’m
playing an important role. And oh, by the way, are
you giving me the support I need to manage myself. And that’s work and life. And it’s not balance. It’s flexibility across
those two things. So it’s really important
for CEOs to believe the business case. I want to give you
one other stat, which is really interesting. About four years ago we
changed our policies around paid sick leave. We went unlimited for paid
sick leave four years ago. It didn’t matter. And we changed two things:
one, to make it unlimited; and second, the actually
make sure the definition was well beyond the
individual being sick. It was a combination of
taking care of elderly, kids, it did not matter. And it was for
everybody in the family. What’s really interesting
is the average amount of sick days went down. It went down. Katty Kay: So interesting. Bob Moritz: So when you combine
a change in policy with more flexibility you actually
got more productivity, which impacted the bottom line,
which is important to companies, but it’s equally as important
for the country as we think about the competitiveness
and what we’re sitting here today with. Claire Shipman: So, Liz, I want
to come to you next, because, Bob, it sounds like you’re
doing incredible things at your company. As we all know,
not every company is doing incredible things. We hope that they will be
influenced by this summit, but what — you know, and when
you look at northern Europe, for example, many
of these things, whether it’s sick leave or
paternity leave flexibility, these are often legislated. That’s probably not going to
happen any time soon in many cases here, so I’m wondering,
what role do you think unions have now on issues like this, on
these — that might be called often softer issues,
but in fact are often of great interest to workers? Liz Shuler: Absolutely. First, just a quick note of
thanks to President Obama. I just want to acknowledge that
we’re all here because of him taking this issue on and
making it a priority — (applause) Liz Shuler: — along
with his Administration. (applause) Liz Shuler: Of course, Tom
Perez and CAP, as well. But you know, when you think
about — just close your eyes for a minute and think about
what’s going on just in a mile radius of this hotel, sometimes
we forget, certainly, the work that’s being
done in that mile radius; think about the workers,
probably a lot of lobbyists, yes, right, a lot of CEOs,
and a lot of diplomats, but also even just looking
at these photos, you know, you got here taking the
Metro, or a cab, or you know, you drove a car that was built
by someone, you — you know, the restaurant workers,
the Local 25 people, who served you here
for the ninth year. (applause) Liz Shuler: And I just
wanted to say that, because I think it’s often
we get in these rooms and forget we need to take a
step back, and think about the people who really
need these policies, and it is the working
people I mentioned. But when you talk to them and
ask them why it’s important, it’s because they need
it to make it now. It has to be a part
of our — you know, our — the way of
thinking about it. It’s not just wages, and
then work/family policies; it’s all together. And so I would say, you know, as
the workplace has changed this has become more of a priority,
as you said, certainly for all, you know, unions,
but all working people. And I think it’s because
of the values, right? As the workplace has
changed — you know, we’ve got new technology,
we’ve got, you know, new ways of doing business —
but our values have not changed. And I think we need to
keep that in mind, as well, when we talk about how we’re
going to move forward. We always have to keep
in mind, what is it? It’s us as Americans, equality,
and fairness, and opportunity, and a hard day’s work
for a fair day’s pay. (applause) Liz Shuler: Absolutely. And so I think always keeping
those values in mind is really what propels people, you know,
to keep their eye on the prize and move these policies forward. (applause) Katty Kay: Sheila, you have
a personal story, which led, of course, to the
founding of your company. I’m willing to guarantee that
90 percent of the people in this room, who are parents
with young children, are having part of their brain
today also focused on how the care is going at home. Who’s looking after my kids? Are they doing the right things? Are they getting them
to the right place? You were in exactly that
position with two young children yourself, and a part of what we
part the sandwich generation, also looking, as so many people
are now, after elderly parents. And that led to the
creation of your company. What propelled you
to set up Care.com? Sheila Marcelo: You know,
Bob actually touched on it. Sometimes the personal
passion — and Liz, trying to remember the faces
out there in a one-mile radius. For me, between my sophomore
and junior year in college I got pregnant. And my husband’s
parents were deceased, my parents were in the
Philippines where I was born and raised, and so
throughout graduate school and our careers it was
very, very difficult for my husband and I. And fast-forward, when our
little guy, our younger boy, Adam, was — and I was
working at a tech start-up. I begged my parents
to come to the U.S. to take care of our little guy. And my mother called me at work,
and the last time I saw my father that morning was — he’s
a teddy bear dad — and he was waving it from the
window saying goodbye to me, and my mother
said he fell backwards down the stairs carrying Adam. And he had had a heart attack. My father — thank
you — today is well, but thank you for
the healthcare, thank you for the things that
we have in the United States. But what made me realize,
because I was sandwiched, as Dr. Biden defined
in the beginning, between childcare and senior
care at 29-years old, I was struggling, and I saw
that millions of families go through this. So then when we started
to peel the onion and start this company. My co-founder Donna is
in the audience today. $243 billion is spent on
child and senior care. $243 billion. And we just did a survey. The largest budgetary
item for families today at $18,000 on averaging,
especially for dual income families,
is childcare. This is a necessity,
not a luxury. (applause) Sheila Marcelo:
This is critical. (applause) Sheila Marcelo: So
some may say that that is a huge opportunity,
big business. But what are we
really talking about? When we think about the macro
environment — and President Obama always is emphasizing
this — when we think about the macro environment
of what drives economic growth, it’s jobs. But we cannot work — you cannot
have jobs unless you’ve got great work/family
and you’ve got care. We’ve got to solve these things. (applause) Claire Shipman: Kim — well
first, before I move on to Kim, I want to say we will be
taking your questions, and on the screens around the
room they’re going to put the address where you can tweet
questions, and ask questions, and send us your questions,
and we’ll look at them in a little bit. So please send them our way. But Kim, I wanted
to turn to you next, and say you have managed in
a company that’s just not a massively-sized corporation to
offer some incredibly generous and innovative opportunities
for the employees there. Can you tell us a
little bit about that, and how do you make that work,
because a lot of smaller businesses often say we
just cannot afford these sorts of policies. Kim Jordan: Yeah. Well, I think it helps
to set a bit of context. Our company was started in the
basement of our house by my then-husband Jeff
Lavish and I, and so we were — we had one child at the
time and we were working to have a second son. And so we, you know, started out
as a family business — and our basement was not as big as the
stage that we’re sitting on. That was almost 23 years ago. So we at that time were
privately — a closely held family business. And I grew up in
a liberal family, and in my mind it was really a
joyful surprise to figure out that you could use profits to
do really interesting things in business, and show up as
a business role model. And so when we had
co-workers, which, you know, took us a little while to
actually have that happen in the company, it for me was
as natural as breathing to say, of course we’re going to create a company where people — at New Belgium
our purpose is to operate a profitable brewery,
which makes our love and talent manifest. And so there are things
that you do with policy, but then there are also things
that you do with community, where people — my
co-workers say to me, “I have never worked somewhere
where I get to be myself.” And I just — that just
breaks my heart, you know, that people are working in
jobs where they kind of have to leave who they are, and
their families, and they’re thinking about
life like in the glove box in the car or something. And so it’s been really
important to create a community where love is predominant. We are in — we started
with open-book management. In the mid-90s, we sold a part
of the company to our co-workers in ’96, and then
another tranche in 2000. And at the beginning of 2013,
I’m pleased to say that we sold the balance of our
company to our co-workers. So my boys and I
were the owners. And how all 560 of us are
owners at New Belgium. (applause) Katty Kay: To play devil’s
advocate here a bit, Nick, we’ve heard of some of the
great things that Bob has found when he’s introduced
flexible work practices. Kim has found them as well. Sheila has found them as well. Liz, of course, is
advocating for them. If they make so much
sense for companies, why is every company in
America not doing this? And why is a company like Yahoo! , which had got
flexible work practices, then under a new CEO saying,
“Well, actually, you know what, we need to roll back
on some of this.” Professor Bloom: (laughs) I
mean, it’s a great question. We’ve heard a series of
excellent examples and reasons why we should be doing it. I should also say the
research is very obvious. The research is very much
the firms that adopt better work/life balance practices,
they grow faster, they have higher sales,
they have higher profits, they have better
management practices, we have a fantastic experiment. I was involved in a massive
NASDAQ-listed company where they got several hundred
volunteers to work from home, and they randomized them in a
kind of scientific experiment into the people that got to
work from home for nine months and that people that had
to stay in the office. They did a treatment and control
trial, much as they test drugs. And the firm’s (unintelligible)
saved money at home on office space for these
guys, you know, who goof off. They’re worried about
them messing around. And in fact when they
ran the experiment, nine months later they
discovered the guys at home were 13 percent more productive,
which is a huge benefit. So there, you
know, a day a week. Katty Kay: Which company
wouldn’t want it? Professor Bloom: Right. So at this point
they rolled it out. They save a couple of thousand
dollars per person per year. So then the question is,
why don’t they do it? And I think the simple answer
is firms make mistakes. It’s very hard to
manage large companies. They’re incredibly complicated. You know, the firms you
have here have basically got it right. But you think about
organizations with — that are growing rapidly — thousands
of employees or — you know, they’re changing, and
it’s hard to get it right. A good anecdote, I think, on
this is in fact ‘Moneyball.’ So ‘Moneyball,’
you probably know, is the book about baseball. I guess it’s, you know, the
English version of cricket — cricket to us — (laughter) Professor Bloom:
— but (inaudible). (laughter) Professor Bloom: And in
‘Moneyball,’ Billy Beane, who’s played by Brad
Pitt in the film, decides to use data metrics to
evaluate how to pick players, and how to make the
team play better. And the Oakland A’s
go on to do very well. They out-perform. They make a lot more money. And it takes the rest of
the industry about 10 years to catch up. And you know, it’s
a fantastic story, but as an economist you think
why weren’t firms doing it, or why weren’t other
teams doing it sooner? So I think the answer is
it’s a new technology. We’ve heard it’s
changing very rapidly. There’s a lot of firms
that are behind the curve. I think, you know,
as Liz said earlier, this summit and Obama’s
intervention is fantastic for pushing this forward to
make it clear how this is the right way to go. It’s also clear
the U.S. is behind the curve internationally. So I’m from the — if
you haven’t figured it out by now, I’m British. (laughter) Professor Bloom: And you know,
in Britain we have — you know, Britain, unfortunately,
is behind the U.S. on most things except, you know
— well, most — cricket, maybe. (laughter) Katty Kay: Even soccer. Bob Moritz: Football. Football. Audience Members: Ohh. Katty Kay: Afraid you’re
doing better than us. (laughter) Professor Bloom: Oh. Bob Moritz: Low blow. Female Speaker: Yeah. They told us — they said,
all politics was fine, but no soccer talk. Remember? We weren’t supposed
to talk soccer. Female Speaker: It’s
been a bad week. Professor Bloom: I’ve come
— (inaudible) to say. Now, in Britain,
I have three kids. My wife had the
first two in the U.K. — in England. And she get a year maternity. It was amazing. So, it goes off —
takes time off work. The first six months was paid. Come to the U.S.,
have the third, and she’s unfortunately never
gone back to work after the third kid, because you
know, it’s so hard. So you know, it’s clear
what needs to be done, and for some reason America
is far behind the curve. Claire Shipman: Well, and, Bob,
talk to us a little about the Millennials, because really,
this is inevitable in terms of what that — what that
generation wants, the way it views the workforce. At least, when we read the data,
it doesn’t seem that companies will have any choice. Bob Moritz: Yeah. So, I think this ties
the two questions together really nicely. So, there are organizations
today that really get this. They see the trends. They see what’s coming, and
they’re making those changes. There are other organizations
that either aren’t seeing the trends, and believe there’s an
abundant supply of talent out there, and you know,
business as usual, and some of the stuff that was
in the video is appropriate. So, you really have to
look forward and say what, is the trends that, you know,
this company in particular is going to be dealing with. You’ve got sort of three or
four big ones when you look at the population of minorities
that apparently are going to be in the majority
going forward. When you look at the combination
of the next the generation of Millennials that will end up
being the majority of our workforce going forward. And our place, our
average age is 29. So, how do we actually
deal with those next the generation of Millennials? Because that’s the
future of today, and the reality of — I’m
sorry, the future of tomorrow, but the reality of today. So, we did a study recently. It was, what we were told was
the largest study around next the generational Millennials. What came out of that? So, a couple of things. One, flexibility,
hugely important. Interesting data point,
compared to the Baby Boomers, not much difference. 70 percent of the Millennials
value that concept of flexibility; 60-some odd
percent of the Baby Boomers and the rest of them do as well. The difference is they are
willing to move or walk with their feet to say, if
you’re not giving them to me, I’m out of here;
whereas, your Baby Boomers are more likely to stay. Katty Kay: So, younger people
seem to value it more. Bob Moritz: A little bit more in
terms of how important it is, but in terms of their
decisions, are willing to walk with their feet. Katty Kay: Right. Bob Moritz: The second thing
that they are very interested — give me the choice. One size fits all on these
policies does not make sense. Going back to the video, there
was a comment made about, you want a combination of
different things from the consents of flexibility,
which is certainty. Well, the reality is
today’s world doesn’t deal with certainties. It’s both the certain
and the uncertain that we have to deal with. And what’s really interesting,
and just to give you another data point, a couple years
ago, we decide to give our people a reward. And rather than
give them the cash, we said we’ll give
them the choice. Here’s your choice:
you can take the cash; you can get a
technology package, playing these
next-the-generation of Millennials; you can
take the time off; you can actually do a charitable
contribution, et cetera. So, we gave them
a lot of choice. Now, let’s be honest, 95 percent
of the people took the cash. (laughter) Bob Moritz: But what
was interesting, there was more benefit
to give them choice, because they want to
control their own destiny. And coming back to policies,
and I don’t care if it’s small companies or big companies,
you’ve got to be more in tune to your next the generations,
and the many mega trends this country has to deal
with and serving them, not today’s reality. Katty Kay: Liz, when Claire and
I wrote Women’s Economics five years ago, and we were looking
specifically at this issue of workplace flexibility
and family life, one of the questions we kept
getting asked was, well, this might be fine
for professionals and white-collar workers. How do you actually implement
flexibility practices, if you have to fill
shifts, for example? If you’re looking at a
production line and there has to be economic on
that line, is it harder to do when we’re looking
at blue-collar workers? Or are there practices
that can work for both Liz Shuler: I would
again say yes, probably. I don’t know in terms of
broad brushing, you know, if we could do that. I think you have to look at
obviously industry by industry. One industry that pops to
mind is the retail sector. And certainly scheduling has
been one of the biggest issues for workers in retail. Knowing that scheduling
is very uncertain, there is often not enough hours
that are given to workers to make full-time employment. The notice that’s provides
provided to workers where, you know, you won’t even know if
you’re working a full week until a couple days beforehand or in
some cases, hours beforehand. And that makes it
incredibly challenging for, especially working mothers
and fathers who need to find childcare. So, sometimes scheduling might
not be necessarily as much of an issue for some of these
work-family types of concepts than other issues, such as
paid leave, paid sick leave, paid family leave. In the restaurant industry,
we know, for example, that workers in restaurants
often don’t have paid sick days. Right? So, you think about,
what are we doing? We have people working
in restaurants coming to work sick, because they
can’t afford not to work. Right? I mean, this is insane, right? So, as we heard earlier, who
wants a side of flu with your sweet potato fries, right? (laughter) Liz Shuler: I mean, so I think
the policies are definitely something, as I said earlier,
that workers are demanding, workers are want. Raising wages, certainly, is
the most important issue to working families — (applause) Liz Shuler: —
generally speaking, but I think the idea also,
as mentioned earlier, about how do workers demand
these kind of policies, right? It’s kind of risky sometimes
asking for these things — Katty Kay: Right. Right. Liz Shuler: — and if you
don’t have the protection of a collective bargaining
agreement or a union — (applause) Liz Shuler: I’ll say it. It’s — and I mean, you two have
written books on this, right? I mean, the notion of
asking for what you need, often you are — there’s
a lot of risk there. So, I think just putting out a
plug for the idea that coming together collectively, right? And exercising your voice — (applause) Liz Shuler: — to give you
more strength and protection is what unions are all about. Claire Shipman: Well,
interestingly, I thing really, Sheila, what you have done
is something like that, because it’s the collective
power of bringing these options together for people that is —
it’s really staggering what you’ve done. We were talking earlier about
not just the — if you could talk a little bit about not just
the quality now that you are able to offer people, but the
chance for people who might not have been able to afford
childcare easily, to now take advantage of some
of this through your company. Sheila Marcelo: Yeah. Let me touch on quality, then I
do want to get to choice that Bob also emphasized in the
workplace that we’re really looking at as well in
choice for caregiving. On the quality side, what
are we talking about? And there are a lot of
employers in the audience. We are talking about
care for our loved ones. And it’s no wonder
this is a key driver for absenteeism and productivity. We’re talking about who
is raising our kids, who is at home. I want to do a call-out to
Matthew at Zero to Three, Lynnette at Childcare Where. They are terrific nonprofits
to get it, who share the data, and want to build that awareness
in early childhood quality. So, when we started this,
Donna and I started this, we talked about it. Is it physical care
that we are looking for? No.
We want high-quality
care at home. (applause) Sheila Marcelo: That’s what’s
giving us this peace of mind. So, here are two areas that we
work on with regards to quality. We’re partnering on
the policy side of the National Domestic
Workers Alliance. We built a care coalition. (applause) Sheila Marcelo: Big shout-out
for Ai-jen and her team. We have built a care coalition
where Care.com actually brought, Claire, we brought many agencies
and we brought the unions together to have a dialogue
about supporting the Domestic Bill of Rights for California
and Massachusetts, and doing whatever we can — (applause) Sheila Marcelo: — to help
professionalize caregiving. Here’s a second way. How do we legalize pay so that
this is not a job — I mean, this is not just a
job that’s part-time, but truly professional? So, we invested — (applause) Sheila Marcelo: — in
one of the largest household payroll companies. And as we dug into that
business, I was shocked. Four and a half million families
should be paying taxes legally to employ a household employee. Do you know how
many actually do? Three hundred thousand. Claire Shipman: Wow. Sheila Marcelo: If we’re not
treating caregivers in a professional manner, and they
are caring for our loved ones, then we are going to enter
into a crisis in this country, because then who is going
to care for our families? We have to professionalize
caregiving. (applause) Sheila Marcelo: We have to
come together, both employers, as well as caregivers,
as — and really have a conversation around quality. Now, when it comes to choice,
there are more immigrants, there are Millennials. They want choice. So, ethnic background, languages
that are spoken at home. How do we want our kids raised? In the way that idiosyncratic
to the way our needs — I’m Pilipino-American. I get it. I understand. And that kind of
choice is important. And then the last piece
of data is Care.com, we measured — a lot of people
think that we might be a nanny web site, but we are all
serving all forms: childcare, senior-care, special needs,
all under one umbrella. But 30 percent of the jobs
that are posted on Care.com are actually full-time jobs. What’s surprising is 60
percent are part-time, often after school, dual income
families, hair-on-fire moments, like that breakfast picture,
trying to figure out who is going to care for my kids,
1.7 average on a family, who is doing the soccer pick up? Who is doing the daycare dash? It’s mayhem, and it’s crazy. And who is supporting and how
we are providing that kind of choice for families. That is what is critical
and it’s important. And that’s what’s going
to increase productivity in the workplace, and the
economics show it. Katty Kay: Kim, we’ve
been hearing that the– (applause) Katty Kay: — clearly the
business case for flexibility, and the need for
better care at home, and flexibility
across the board. If you could point to two things
that you have done in your company that have really
worked that other companies in this room could replicate,
what would they be? Kim Jordan: We have what we
call — and this I think pretty common in a lot of companies,
although I am often surprised, things that I think are pretty
common are perhaps not. We have what we call
PTO, personal time off. It is not earmarked
for a particular thing. You can use it for childcare. You can use it if you’re sick. You can use it to go on
vacation, whatever you want. And I think, you know, sort
of setting that tone that this is your — and it’s —
ours is pretty generous. In the first year of employment,
you have nearly three weeks off of paid time off, which is,
I think, kind of unusual — (applause) Kim Jordan: — to
have that much. And I think kind of back to
something around love or relationship, we
are a manufacturer. We employ blue-collar people to
wear rubber boots, and you know, put swing links
together to make beer. (applause) Kim Jordan: And
in that, you know, shift work is
harder in that way, but because of this climate
that we’ve set up where we say, of course you
need time, you know, because your kid has a play
that you want to go to, or your mother needs to go to
the doctor and you need to take her, there’s just this
sense even in — even for our folks to do hourly
shiftwork, that we are there to accommodate one another. And that there —
no one would say, what do you mean you are going
to, you know, go do that thing, whatever it is? So, I don’t — those are maybe
not — let me think about some other examples that we have. I think, just generally speaking
in terms of building that robust community of people, we
practice open book management. All of our coworkers know
where all of the money goes. We practice
high-involvement culture. We expect them to build the
strategy with us every year. And we have, you know, broad
equity sharing through 100 percent ownership. And the three legs of those
stool — of that stool is a really powerful tool for us in
people thinking about, you know, how this community of coworkers
affects their families, and how — and you know,
people’s families are intimately involved in our lives. We play together quite a bit. So, I don’t know if those are,
you know, helpful or not, but those are a few of the
smaller things that we do. Claire Shipman: And, Nick, I
wonder — one thing that came up earlier, but I’d love
to address it again. We — a couple of years
ago, everybody was taken aback when Yahoo! announced that, well,
no more flexibility. The company that had been
known for this incredibly generous flexibility
policy was retrenching. And Best Buy we saw
do something similar. And I remember Katty and I
at the time thought, well, is the trend — are
things suddenly moving in the other direction? Katty Kay: Was this
post resection? Claire Shipman: Right. Why do you think — why do
you think that happened, and do you think there are
times when companies need to put aside some
of these policies? Or are they always going to
be useful in any economy and in any situation? Professor Bloom: Well, you
know, the — thankfully, the data overall
looks pretty good. So, you know, on the one
hand, the U.S. is improving. So, if you look at, for
example, working from home, it’s gone up about 50 percent
over the last 10 years. I look at, you know,
childcare flexibility data, they’ve improved. On the other hand, though, if
you look at it by global tables, the U.S. still pretty far
behind, so it’s gone from being, you know, worse in
the class to improving, but still pretty bad. Why is that? Well, you know, Yahoo! is a great case, because I don’t
know how much people know — around — you know, I
live out in California, in Silicon Valley in Stanford. And there was a
huge media storm. So Marissa Mayer,
who is CEO of Yahoo, an e-mail leaked out saying
that they were abandoning working from home. And it’s turned
into a media storm. She was heavily criticized. And what seems to have happened,
if you follow the case through, is they actually, relaxed back. So, what happened initially is
they had people who were working from home five days a week. They weren’t in the office ever. It was hard for them
to liaise in the team, and it didn’t work well. They then went the
opposite situation, where nobody was allowed
to work at home at all. And that created
big problems, too. Firstly, it’s very hard to
retain and attract the kind of people that need to be
around their families. But secondly — it was
bad for their performance, you — you know, I remember
you looked on (inaudible) — people at home can
concentrate better. They have time away. They can step back. They can think. They really value it. They are prepared
to be flexible. So, for both of
those reasons, Yahoo! has stepped back. And they’ve gone back to
something that’s now pretty common, which is, you know, many
employers are allowed to work at home Monday and Friday. So, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, you’re all in the
office together. The team happens to be there. You’re engaged. Monday and Friday, you want
to be at your kid’s play, or do thing with your children
and then work in the evening, or maybe on the weekend,
or have four days a week. That has become a much
more common model. And then, the other example
I saw that worked very well was a Jet Blue. So Jet Blue is a big airline. And Jet Blew operates
out of Salt Lake City. And there, they aim
for high quality, and to do this they allow people
to work from home to flex their time as well. And what they got was a large
number of peep very educated, very impressive working mothers
that would work from home. And I remember visiting
one of these women. And she said I start
work at 5:00 a.m. I work for an hour
and a half until 6:30. And then my kids wake up. I, you know, I cook
them breakfast. I take them to school. I come back at 8:00. And I work until 10:00. I then do exercise
class until 11:00. I then go back on, you
know, et cetera, et cetera. And for people like this,
this works incredibly well. So, you want to get women
working — and men, you know, have to get — Vice President
Biden was talking about earlier, for working fathers. If you want to get them
involved in the labor force, flexibility is key. And they drag people in
and help promote growth. So, it’s very much
a win-win situation. It’s a win for firms. Sales goes up, profit
goes up, growth goes up. And it’s win for employees. They are happier. They are more productive. And it’s something
that, you know, I’m pleased is being
pushed forwards. Katty Kay: Okay. Bob, I wanted — there’s
some questions that have come into us. And this is something
that, again, Claire and I have
come across is, companies that have flexible
policies in their policy, but when it actually comes
to practice there’s a stigma against them having it. How do you address companies
with good policies, but an informal bias against
employees actually taking advantage of those policies? Bob Moritz: So, to me,
there’s a couple of things in the question. It’s about tone at the top,
and I’m going to call it tone at the middle. So, there’s too many times
— and I’ll give you a real-life example. When we went and took our
three-year people and wanted to make sure that we were
rewarding a milestone. And you can almost argue
it was almost like the soccer-trophy mentality. You showed up on a soccer
field, and you got a trophy. Many people in our
organization would have said, can we stop rewarding for that? Well, you can do
that if you want, but maybe you want to flip
that upside down on its head. So, let’s sort of build a
policy from the bottoms up. So, we actually did an
exercise where we said, well, if somebody is going to stay
with us for three years, let’s reward them. And what the reward is going
to be is not financial, but it’s going to be personal. We are going to send
you away for a week, and we are going to teach
you life skills: healthcare, financial wellbeing,
elderly-care, all of the above. How do you manage
stress, et cetera? And great policy, what
you want to put in place. Here’s the problem, folks. When they went away for a
week and they came back, if that 58-year-old
white guy was saying, get your butt back in the
chair, you’ve got a problem. So, now the question is, how
does tone in the middle really become accountable for making
sure this stuff comes to life? So, now if I go back to, if I
were to answer the question, what’s really important for us? It’s about talking about
this stuff publicly. It’s setting the right tone
all the way through the organization, and actually
using real-life examples, time and time again in
terms of what’s working, what’s not working. Being very respectful
in the process. You don’t want to be
threatening in any way. But it’s really
important to do that. And equally important,
going back to the question you asked Nick, is
talk more about why. When Marissa made the
change, it was headline news, but no one got into the issue of
why did she make that change? I’ll give you another example. When we change from a flexible
Friday — every Friday you could take off —
and we wanted to make it to every day is flexible. So, do what you want. Inside the organization,
everybody starts saying, oh, flexibility is not
important anymore. Like, it became a policy
that we just took away. That’s not what
we’re saying, guys.
0:56:39.266,1193:02:47.295
No, no, no. What we’re saying is,
flexibility should be 24/7, 365. And if I’ve got people in the
middle or the chain of command that’s not evidencing that, then
I’ve got to take action on that. Accountability, risk and reward,
and making sure we’re talking about it time and time again. Claire Shipman: Sheila, this is
a question that I think will be interesting for you, and
you touched on it earlier. But talking about care
workers specifically, but also the need for eldercare,
as you were mentioning — what can be done to ensure that
families can get affordable care for their parents
and their children? And I understand
that the — you know, what you have created to some
extent offers people more options, but is there more that
can be done than just your — what your company is doing
right now to try to make care affordable, and at the time make
sure that the care workers were, as you mentioned, adequately
paid and taken care of? Sheila Marcelo: So, it’s really
this marketplace that we’re building with about 10
million members here in the United States
alone — and we are in 16 countries now — but if we think about the U.S., we’re very
proud that we’re working now also in making sure that on our website, all caregivers — and it’s very clear to families — is being paid above or at minimal wage. And making that clear. Because oftentimes, there’s
not also a huge awareness for families to understand
the importance of that. And it is about education
awareness-building. Another statistic that also we
have found in build the company is that 15 percent of our
members are 50K-income households and below. So, people think that people
that are only going online are high income people. In fact, on average,
we’re 75K-income, and it’s certainly skews higher. But the fact that we’ve got 15
percent of 50K-income and below, and growing, means this really
is a need for families. And we’re making the affordable,
because it’s so fragmented, and it’s very difficult, and
previously very inefficient in a very fragmented space. And we can proudly say that we
are now working with senior care agencies, home care agencies,
nanny agencies so that we’re helping grow their
businesses, too, because they’re getting
access to both families, as well as caregivers, because
now we have the largest vetted caregiver
database in the country, so that it’s — we’re also
making it efficient to recruit caregivers on Care.com, so that
we can help businesses grow. So, in this fragmented space,
it’s about making it affordable, making choice available
to all families, and making sure that it’s
ubiquitous enough in all ZIP codes across the country,
so that they can have access to care. Katty Kay: But — go ahead. Claire Shipman: Well, I was
just going to follow-up. I don’t know, maybe
for Liz or Nick. I mean, ultimately, are we
talking about needing more of a tax incentive for caregivers? Are we talking about
corporations pitching in a little bit? Because really, what is the
answer to making this more affordable for people? I don’t really see
how that happens. Liz Shuler: And I was
thinking of — I see Leader Pelosi the front. It’s demanding our
policy makers — (applause.) Liz Shuler: — pressuring
our policy makers to pass an agenda that’s already
ready for passage, right? Which is when women
succeed, America succeeds. Thank you very much. But also I’ll put a little
PSA in there for collective bargaining again, because
we’ve seen solutions — (applause.) Liz Shuler: —
actually, real time. For example, up in New York
with SEIU-1199, you know, coming together with
workers and employers — (applause.) Liz Shuler: — putting a little
bit of contribution from each into a trust fund to provide
for care for — whether it’s, you know, elderly or children
or whatever, to subsidize that. So, there creative ways
of doing that out there, if we all work together. I think that’s the big
point, the big take away, is that we’re all going
to need to work together Katty Kay: We touched a
little bit there on stigma in talking of working together. I’m interested to know whether
you think there is still clearly a split between mothers and
fathers when it comes to this issue of pushing for
flexibility and childcare. I mean, I was very
interested, in speak to you, Sheila, earlier. And you said that 15 percent or
something of the people — of the families — parents who
come to you web site are dads. That’s still fairly low
as a number of fathers who are equally involved
in this process. Is that something,
Kim, that you see? Is this still essentially
a mother’s issue? Because I think that
once we move beyond that, we will then be able to
reduce the stigma about — around flexible processes. Kim Jordan: I would say that
it’s certainly more of a mother issue than a mother and father
issue, although, you know, everyone’s case is different. But I think that does
inherently, sadly, sort of diminish
the power of it, if it’s mostly mothers who
are trying to find a way to galvanize leadership around
this important issue. You know, in our organization,
we provide maternity leave, paternity leave, same
sex — something — (laughter) Liz Shuler: A loud conversation
going on back there. Kim Jordan: — domestic
partner benefits, adoption assistance, so — Katty Kay: Do you —
I mean, Nick, I mean, I have this kind
of fantasy that, because my children —
I have four of them — Kim Jordan: We’ve lost them. Katty Kay: — have seen
their mother working, but just as importantly, they’ve
seen their father make lunch boxes, organize play dates — Female Speaker: Yeah. Katty Kay: — get
the kids to school. I travel a lot for work. My husband Tom has to
take over completely in those circumstances. So, will the next
the generation, the generation that we —
when you look at the data, are they changing? Professor Bloom: I mean, I think
it’s — (unintelligible) the importance of role models
is really important. I mentioned earlier, after
coming to the U.S., because after our third child,
my wife, you know, isn’t working right now. I mean, I had one of these
horrifying situations where my five-year-old
daughter, we asked her what did she want to
do when she grew up. And she had watched
Frozen, and so naturally, she says be a princess
with special powers. (laughter) Professor Bloom: And — Kim Jordan: It’s not a
bad gig if you can get it. Professor Bloom: And I said,
you know, if that doesn’t work out, what else. And she said marry a rich man. And at that point, you know — (laugher) Professor Bloom: — I
became kind of — you know, this whole — my mom —
I’m one of four kids. My mom worked. I always thought
of it as important. And part of the way to make
this happen is through policy. If you look in
France, for example, France has a very statutory
intervention to try to subsidize, encourage firms
to pay for childcare. That helps French
women go to work. We were talking in the break,
fascinating about Japan. So, Japan has had terrible
growth for the last 15 years. It’s been a basket case country. And what they’re trying to
do now to turn it around is to actually focus on women,
get them back into work. So, Japan has very low
levels of female labor force participation. And it also has very
low birth rates, because women really don’t want
to be stuck in this terrible setup whereby they’re expected
to both have to work, have kids, have no help from their
partners, and so, they’re trying to be very
pro-helping childcare, helping firm subsidize it,
being basically pro-women. And it’s their route to growth. I mean, they’re saying it as
their number one policy to drive economic growth. So, I think it goes, you know,
this is clearly a worker’s thing that’s important. The firm thing is important. But the bigger picture of growth
is going to pay for schools and hospitals is where we
need to drive this, too. Claire Shipman: And I know
we have one question specifically for Bob. And you wanted to comment on the
last one anyway, but which was, how would you talk to other
large companies that are on the fence about adopting
some of these policies? Bob Moritz: So, I
have a privilege, which is to go see a lot of
organizations, big and small, doesn’t matter where across the
country, and around the world. And we do get into these kind of
conversations: The thing I would be respectfully challenging
of these organization is, where is the CEO’s
head on this topic, and where is the board’s
responsibility on this topic. It is huge. (applause) Bob Moritz: So, I’ll try to
tie these two things together, because let’s be honest. Right now, we do have a
stigma issue still with this. Look, the majority of
the audience is women. No disrespect, but
nonetheless, this has got to be a balanced issue. (applause) Bob Moritz: But what’s really
interesting is you can walk into a CEO’s office, and if
it’s on their agenda, if they talk about it
passionately, it will get done. Katty Kay: Right. Bob Moritz: It will get done. And the reality is, when you
walk in and someone isn’t getting it, you’ve got to
do two or three things. You’ve really got to
respectfully challenge was the business case or get
really personal with them. One of two things. It’s the only way you’re
going to make it happen. And if not them, then there
is the attack going to be? I’ll give you one small example. I went to one organization and
a bunch of people — I met with the management team, and I said,
well, the CEO doesn’t get this. They are not talking
about it passionately. And my next the question
was, well, who is? Who is the next-gen? Or where is the board? You want a sandwich, let’s
talk about the sandwich. It has got to be from the top,
or build it up from the bottoms. But nonetheless,
this is important. Of which the voices of
the employees today, and the voices of the employees
of tomorrow have got to come to life, because it is the
responsibility of the management team to make this stuff
happen, each and every day. Claire Shipman: All right. CEO’s, you heard that. Katty Kay: There you go. Claire Shipman: Everybody,
show this to your CEO’s. (applause) (inaudible commentary) Claire Shipman: I want to
thank our panel very much. Kim and Nick and Sheila,
Bob, Liz, Katty, and myself. Thank you so much for listening
to such an important issue. Katty Kay: Thank you. Thank you. (applause.) Female Speaker: Please welcome
president and founder of Family Values at Work, Ellen Bravo. (applause) Ellen Bravo: Thank you
so much, President Obama, the White House staff, the
Department of Labor, CAP, for this amazing summit. And thanks also to —
I think they’re there. I can see nothing —
the women in Congress, who have been leading the way
with their ‘When Women Succeed, America Succeeds — (applause) Ellen Bravo: — Program,’
taking it on the road. I want to call attention to some
other amazing people in the audience who were nominated and
got tickets to come here today, because they’re
expertise matters. The experts include people like
our Lisa Hearn from Detroit. When her son had bouts
of Sickle cell anemia, and had to be in the
hospital, our Lisa said “I will not leave
you there alone.” And every time she was
docked her pay for doing it. Rhiannon Brochard from Chicago. Her special-need’s kid, when the
school closed because it was too cold, she said to him “I
will not leave you alone,” and she lost her job. Shelby Ramirez, who had
lunch with the President, two and a half weeks — that’s
all it was — of unpaid leave to care for her daughter and
her dad when their surgeries overlaps, and she
almost faced eviction, and had to pawn and
lose the only thing of monetary value
that she owned. Melissa Bravo, for whom
having a baby meant losing her job and going into
a cycle of debt. And Larry Kenny, who took
personal tragedy and turned it into commitment to be a
best-practice employer. And he understands that best
practices include not just providing good policies
for your workers, but speaking out to make sure
there’s a floor for every worker in the country. (applause) Ellen Bravo: These folks — and
there’s dozens of them in this room — have transformed their
own pain and hardship into power by speaking up together and
sharing their experiences to show the need and the tremendous
benefit of common sense and wildly popular policies,
like paid sick days and family medical
leave insurance. And they are helping lead the
broad and diverse coalition in our Family Values at Work
Network that have won — pay attention to this number —
nearly 20 million Americans now have paid — newly have paid
sick days and family medical leave insurance, because of
these folks and our partners all over the country. (applause) Ellen Bravo: And here
is what they say. These experts say we cannot
allow that the very thing that makes you a good parent or a
good child to your parents costs you your paycheck or your job. We cannot allow a parent’s
presence during the day in their toddler’s hospital room
to be their work number on a white board, because
their family would take a financial hit otherwise. We cannot allow our values as
Americans to be compromised. Vice President Biden is right. The biggest family value
is time for family, and we absolutely
know what works. We have the evidence. And our families, our business,
and our economy depend on us guaranteeing it to every single person in this country. So, will you please
join us in this fight? Like us on Facebook. Sign up on our Family Values
at Work dot org web site. Read the stories of the
people I’m talking about. Get involved in thesis
local campaigns. We’ll all work together for
these national campaigns. And will you please right now
stand up if you are involved in a local fight anywhere for
paid sick days or family leave or anything that helps working
families — living wage, immigrant rights,
collective bargaining — (applause) Ellen Bravo: — ending
pregnancy discrimination, domestic worker recognize,
childcare, fair scheduling. Guess what? Guess what? We are going to be become
the nation we claim to be, and it’s because all of you,
and I’m so proud to be part of this movement with you. Thank you. Thank you, so much. (applause) Jay Bukowski: You
like the bumpy side? Child Speaker: I
like the bumpy side. Child Speaker: I go first. Child Speaker: I go first. Jay Bukowski: We’ll
see who goes first. Child Speaker: I do. Jay Bukowski: Oh, okay. Child Speaker: And me first. Male Speaker: Okay. You both go first. Jay Bukowski: My
name’s Jay Bukowski. I’m the dad of Jack
and Ava, the twin, two-and-a-half-year-old
terrors that sort of invaded my life for the better. Child Speaker: The truck. Jay Bukowski: There’s
a truck on yours. Yeah. (laughter) Jay Bukowski: Jack and
Ava were born at 28 weeks, which is significantly
premature. They spent 69 days in the
neonatal intensive care unit. They were our little
babies in a bubble. (music playing) Jay Bukowski: We left the
hospital after a week of recovery for my wife. And you know, we had
to leave them there. It’s one of the
hardest things to do, to have to leave your child
behind as you’re going home. The doctors said for the
first six months no daycare. It was too much
of a health risk. And so, Christie’s paid
family leave ran out. I had burned through
all my vacation days, and all my sick days first, and
then I took paid family leave so that one of us could be
with them at all times. If we didn’t have access
to paid family leave, it would have been
incredibly hard to do, especially with twins. I think it’s kind of an outdated
way of thinking that the mom does the childrearing, and the
dad goes to work and brings home the paycheck. You know, the dad has to
have a part in the family. I think having taken an active
role in my kids’ first few months has brought me
a lot closer to them. Woo. (laughs) I never thought I’d
get to this point, but I have inside jokes with
my two-and-a-half-year-olds. You’re not going to get
eight hours sleep anymore, but you’re going to get
to cuddle with your kids, so it’s so much better than
eight hours sleep (laughs). Male Speaker: Jason isn’t the
only one who can afford to spend some time with a newborn or
seriously ill loved one because of Family Values at
Work and their partners. Today, nearly 17
million have access to medical leave insurance. This means babies can
breastfeed longer. More seniors can
live independently. Kids heal faster with
a parent at their side. Businesses have reliable
workers and customers that can support them: We all win
with paid family leave. (applause) Lisa Rumain: Please welcome
mother, activist, journalist, and founder of the Shriver
Report, Maria Shriver. (applause) Lisa Rumain: And senior
fellow at the Center for American Progress,
Maya Harris. (applause) Maria Shriver: Good afternoon. We’re going to make this
quick, because no one’s been to the bathroom for
about two hours. (laughter) Maya Harris: I know. I saw everybody was out
there trying to get there, and they tried to
shut it all down. So, let’s have
jump right in here. We talked — it was
announced about you, Maria, in the Shriver Report,
which earlier this year, you along with the American
Center for Progress, put out the report. And at the time you
put out the report, you talked about it as being
a national reality check. What did you mean by that? What motivated you
to do the report? Maria Shriver: Well, we had
done two previous reports. The first one obviously,
with the Center for American Progress, detailing that
women were becoming primary bread winners in a majority
of American families. The second one really looked at
the population of women who were unpaid caregivers while
also being bread winners. And we looked at the
epidemic of Alzheimer’s. And we started to think, well,
if women are primary bread winners, and they’re also
caregivers and caretakers, what’s happening to them? And the fact is one in three
working women in this country are living on the
brink of poverty. That’s what the Shriver Report
came out with the Center for American Progress, and televised
and communicated to the country that the image of, you know,
women on the brink was not what it was 50 years ago, that the
American family had changed, that the women who were in the
forefront of their families looked a lot like
everybody in this room. Maya Harris: And what about the
research in terms of what you found when you were out? I know you did, over the course
of two years, interviews, research, pull together
a diverse set of voices. You did a poll of Americans. And how did — Maria Shriver: Right. Female Speaker: — people — how
were people responding to these issues, talking about
these issues in the poll? Maria Shriver: Well, we also did
a film on HBO called “Paycheck to Paycheck,” which you can
still watch on HBO Go — (applause) Maria Shriver: — and what we
found was that everywhere I went all across the country, people
came up to me and said, “That’s my story. I also live paycheck
to paycheck. I feel unheard. I feel invisible.” And the polls show that
what people really wanted, which has been discussed
here today, was time, time to take care of a parent,
time to take care of themselves, time to take care of a child,
and they felt really judged, and really — and I think the
thing that kind of struck me the most was how invisible families
feel across this country that I meet when I’m going out
as a reporter for NBC. They just say, “I don’t know
what’s going on in Washington. I don’t know why we don’t
have these policies. What can we do? How do we raise our voices?” Maya Harris: And what has some
of the other sort of public reaction been to it
beyond the families who are most directly impacted? Maria Shriver: Well, I think
what’s been really exciting, and I think what everybody’s
heard here today is that there are things going on. There has been such leadership
by so many of the people in this room for many, many years. And I think, just in the
last six months — I was at the mayor’s conference
yesterday in Dallas, and they convened a taskforce
on income inequality. This is a defining
issue of our time. People — and I think it’s great
that the mayors are saying, “We’re going to tackle this
at the grassroots level. We’re on the
frontlines of humanity, and we’re going
to make an impact, because we know that this
affects women and men.” And I think that the idea that
women who are out there working, who are living on the brink,
they’re saying, “Look it, I’m trying to raise my family. I’m not looking for a hand-out. I’m looking for a hand-up.” I was encouraged to hear
that President Obama said, you know — (inaudible commentary) Maria Shriver: — thank you. His mother used food stamps
for a while to get herself up off of the brink. And so many of the women that
I have met along the way said, “You know, don’t judge me. Don’t judge me where I’m at. You know, wait, and
see where I’m going, and where I’m going is up.” (applause) Maya Harris: And what
has surprised you? I mean, you’ve been traveling
around the country for the last six months talking to
an array of audiences. You talked to elected’s,
what you talked to people who are living on the brink,
what has surprised you, either in terms of the
stories that you’ve heard, the facts you’ve learned? Maria Shriver: Well, what
surprises me always — that people who have nothing are
so inspired to do better. The people who are on the brink
are determined, they’re hopeful, they’re proud to be Americans. They want to give their
children a better job, and they aren’t who the images. And I think that’s one of the
things, when I sit here today,
1:18:42.266,1193:02:47.295
I think the image is
old, it’s outdated. that we need to, as
a nation, catch up, to who the American family is,
to who people are that are struggling and
living on the brink. The image that they’re sitting
around doing nothing is, couldn’t be further
from the truth. And, so — (applause) Maria Shriver: — I think that
it’s really the communication. I think also what really
surprised me is how many families are unaware of programs
that are — that exist that can help them off the brink. And that’s something I learned
while I was First Lady of California, that government
often passes laws, and then forgets to tell the
people that they’re passed. And this — (laughter) Maria Shriver: It sounds funny,
but it was something that when I got to Sacramento, it was kind
of like you wouldn’t put out a movie or a book and not
tell anybody about it. But government does that. And so, one thing
when I was first lady, we would put all these programs
together that help low-income people, and we called it, we
connected them together to make them easy to sign
up for, accessible, and available to people,
so to let them know — (applause) Maria Shriver: — you’re
available for the earned income tax credit, you can
get a child tax credit, you can get energy assistance. These programs
exist to help you, and people over and over again
were like, “I didn’t know that. I don’t know
anything about that.” And so, it also struck me, when
I traveled around the country, how segregated, really, the
women who are “empowered and doing well” are from the women
who are on the ground working two and three jobs to keep
their families afloat. (applause) Maya Harris: And what
about — you know, you talk about catching up. And backing out the report some
to the broader environment in, you know, in which all
of this is unfolding — Maria Shriver: [affirmative] Maya Harris: This is clearly
such a widespread issue. We’ve talked today about how
many families are living on the brink, living
paycheck to paycheck. And at the same time, it’s
not entirely clear that our public conversation,
our political discourse — Maya Harris: — is occurring in
a way that is going to move us
1:20:46.900,1193:02:47.295
Maria Shriver: Yeah. in the direction we need to go
in order to get the changes that we know we need. So, you’re a journalist,
you’ve been a producer. You know, so much of that
conversation unfolds in the media, media
shapes public opinion. Maria Shriver: [affirmative] Maya Harris: What are
your thoughts about that? Are we having the right
conversation today in the public domain that’s going to move
us in the right direction? Maria Shriver: Well, I think it
depends what you’re watching. (laughter) Maria Shriver: And, I think we
are living more and more in a segregated media culture. People watch what
they want to watch, and they don’t hear about
what else is going on. And the Shriver Report came into
life really as a nonprofit media initiative, because the
conversation that it was having wasn’t being had on television. And you know, I work in
television, and oftentimes, you know, you can go into a
great story, and they’re like, give me a minute and a half. How am I going to tell that
story in a minute and a half? So, I think that we have to do
a better job communicating who the American
family is in 2014. I think we need to do a
better job at communicating what programs exist. I think we have to communicate
to Democrats, Republicans, men, and women that
they have a voice, and that the change
starts with them. I think that’s really important
for everybody in this room. When I was First
Lady in California, people would come up to me
all the time and say that, “You should this, and
you should do this.” And I’d be like,
“What are you doing?” And they’re like, “Well,
you know, I have kids.” And I’m like, “Me too.” And they’re like, “I
have a sick parent.” I’m like, “Me too.” And they’re like,
“Well, what can I do? I can’t do anything.” And I’m like, “Yes, you can.” You can begin, if you’re a
parent in raising kids who are conscious and compassionate
and value the care economy. (applause) Maria Shriver: I think that’s
really, really important. I think if you are
a parent of a boy, you can raise him to believe
and to respect women. I think that’s really important. (applause) Maria Shriver: I think if you’re
the parent of a daughter, you can raise her
with self-esteem, but also to raise her to
understand that men are not her enemy; that men are her
allies, and that together, they’re going to
accomplish these things. I think that’s really important. (applause) Maria Shriver: I also think it’s
really important for women who are out in the workforce to
understand that there’s a whole economy and substructure
that allows them to do that, and that to pay those people,
whether they’re in your house, taking care of your parent,
or moving out from there, a living wage. And I think — (applause) Maria Shriver: — I often find
people say, “Well, you know, I pay my trainer $200, but
the person taking care of my kids, I’m paying her
$9 under the table.” (laughter) Maria Shriver: So, I think that
there is a lot of, you know, change that can start
in our own homes, start with the kind of
employer we want to be, start giving to people who work
for us the same things that we ask for from our employers. People need to know that they
can vote for men or women who talk about the care economy, who
talk about the sharing economy, who talk about conscious,
compassionate, caring workplaces, the culture. I think there’s a lot that each
of us can do, speak up for, and ask of our political
leaders, our business leaders, but also of ourselves. (applause) Maya Harris: And I know you’re
going to go out and continue to do this work, and carry
this work forward. What do you want everyone
else who’s here to go out and do after they leave this,
because as we’ve said today, this is one step along
a long path to change? What is your hope for
what happens when we leave here today? Maria Shriver: I think a
lot of cities out there, and there’s a lot of states
out there, and I think, I like to believe that every
single person is a reporter of their own story. I’m a big believer in that, and
that there is an audience for your story. You can inspire other people
with your story if you write today what you heard, what
you saw, what struck you, get 10 people in your
community, get people in your workplace to talk about
what kind of culture you want in your workplace. I was very encouraged
— I don’t drink beer, but I’m going to drink beer
from that woman’s company that she had today — (laughter and applause) Maria Shriver: — because
I think, you know, women make 80 percent of the
consumer decisions in this country. You can put your
money to companies that espouse your values. That’s really important. (applause) Maria Shriver: I
think, as I said, you can spend money
with companies. You can vote for people
that espouse your beliefs. Don’t give your vote away for
free, and to see yourself, I think, really as what I
call an architect of change. Tell your story, share your
story, speak up, speak out, don’t sell your vote,
don’t sell your money, and think of yourself as the
best investment in yourself, in the children you raise, and
in the companies you support and the people you
send to Washington, and demand nothing
short of excellence. (applause) Maya Harris: We are the
architects of change. Thank you, Maria Shriver. Maria Shriver: And thank
you all for being here. It’s great, thank you. (applause) Maya Harris: Thank you. Maria Shriver: Thank you. Tina Tchen: All right, I’m back. (laughs) All right, now we’re
going to do something a little fun. So, if you’re nine new facts,
you found that there was fact number eight, was the results of
a Nielson-Harris poll that was done just in advance of
the summit, which found, among a lot of other
things, that, you know, over a third of parents think
they’ve been passed over for promotion, a raise, or a new
job due to the need for a flexible work schedule. What’s important about
these statistics, and all of the statistics
that Beth went through, is we need to be telling
everyone in America what working families really look like, and
what the struggles are that they go through, and that’s what
this summit is all about. So, you’re going to
help me do that now. We’re going to do something fun. So now, I want you to
take out your cell phones. Now, when in a summit has
somebody told you to take out your cell phones? (laughs) We’re going to
take out your cell phones, and we’re going to have
instructions come up on the screen that will tell you
how we’re going to do a live interactive poll as we speak
about what everybody in this room has been experiencing, in
your lives, as working families. So you see up there, you
want to hit the — so, I’m the perfect
person to do this, because I’m really
such a technophobe. I’m really not good at this. So, open up your phone,
go to your text messaging, and you want to text 22333,
so put that up in the ‘To,’ just like we were sending
a message, to 22333, and our first question is,’I
feel like my commitment to my family responsibilities has held me back in my career.’ If that’s true, you
text the word, “work01.” If it’s false, you text
the word, “work 02.” You can also do it
through Twitter. So if you tweet @poll, and
you use the same keywords, if it’s true for you that
‘I feel like my commitment to my family responsibilities
has held me back in my career,’ you will put in that keyword,
“work01,” or false, “work02.” So if it’s true for you that
a commitment to your family responsibilities has held you
back in your career, do that. And we’re doing that, sort of
getting those questions live, and you see that, a majority
of people in this room, that’s been your experience,
that a commitment to your family responsibilities has held
you back in your career, which is just the experience
that Americans across the country are having. So let’s try
question number two. Question number two, ‘I’ve
experienced an employer overtly or covertly’ — so this is what
the president was talking about, right — ‘overtly or covertly
questioning my commitment to my job, because of my
family responsibilities.’ This is like, you’re going to
the parent-teacher conference, and instead of saying,
aw, you know, it’s like, really not so
committed to the job. If that’s been your experience,
that you’ve been overtly or covertly questioned
your commitment, because of your family
responsibilities, you check true if that’s
true for you, “work03.” If it’s false, you
text, “work04.” You going? So we’re tabulating those? So nearly 60 percent, nearly
60 percent of us in our work experiences have experienced
exactly what the President was talking about. It’s that conflict between work
and family come into clash, and where your employer’s
looking at you and saying that you don’t have a commitment. That’s the kind of
attitude we need to change. That’s the kind of attitude —
like Mark was up here talking about it at EY, Bob
was talking about it. We’ve got CEOs that we need
to change from the top down, to change that attitude. One more question: ‘My job
caused me to miss a family moment or event that I
still regret missing.’ All right, this one hits
really close to home. (laughs) I could
start rattling off. Not just a family moment,
there are several. So, if it’s true for you that
your job caused you to miss a family moment or event that
you still regret missing, you text true —
“work05” if it’s true, “work06” if it’s false. Okay, look at this one. (laughs) All right, this
is pretty telling, guys. 88 percent, yep, 88 percent of
us have missed those events, and that’s not the kind of
country we want to have. That’s not the kind of
workplaces that we want to have. That’s not the future we
want to build for our kids, for the next generation. So these are all
the motivations, this is the stuff we want to
change through the summit, which is just the
starting point. I just want to emphasize,
today is not the endpoint. Today is just the starting point
for the work we have to do. So one more thing
before we go to break, and we have an opportunity here
to recognize some great leaders, who have been leading
the charge on this. So what I want to do now is I
want to bring up to the stage all the wonderful members of
Congress who are with us. And I’m going to just
tick off their names. I want — we’re going to
bring them up to the stage. I want you to give them a
huge round of applause for their leadership. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Joyce Beatty. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Debbie Wasserman Schultz. (applause) Tina Tchen: Senator
Amy Klobuchar. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Rosa DeLauro. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Donna Edwards. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Robin Kelly. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Jan Schakowsky. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Suzanne Bonamici. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Sheila Jackson Lee. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Eddie Bernice Johnson. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Michelle Lujan Grisham. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Chellie Pingree. (applause) Tina Tchen: Representative
Doris Matsui. (applause) Tina Tchen: And, of course,
our leader, Nancy Pelosi. (laughter and applause) Tina Tchen: When women
succeed, America succeeds. (applause) Tina Tchen: The leader told me. (laughter and applause) Tina Tchen: All
right, thank you. So, we are now going to head
out to our — first of all, I also want to thank all of you,
because you can tell this has been an overflow day,
an overflow room — (laughter) Tina Tchen: — I know some
of you didn’t get lunch, some of you didn’t get seats;
you’ve been very patient. It just shows you how much
enthusiasm, how much passion, how much power is in this room,
to change working places so they work for working families. So thank you all very much. So, finally, as we head
into our last segment, we’re going to leave,
go to breakouts, which will start in
about — at about 3:15, so you’ve got some time. And then, after your breakouts,
come back into this room. We have a final
concluding plenary. We’re going to have folks, like
leader Pelosi, Gloria Steinem, and we will end the day with
Robin Roberts interviewing the First Lady of the United
States, Michelle Obama. So be sure to come back. (applause)

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